Consider how Climate Change is going to affect our local environment, including NewsLinks, Resources, and Information for the Rochester, NY area.
Why the Climate Change issue is important to Rochesterians and our environment
“There is no longer any doubt that the Earth’s climate is changing at an accelerating rate and that the changes are largely the result of human-generated greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere caused by increasing human development and population growth. Climate change has manifested itself in rising sea levels, melting sea ice and glaciers, changing precipitation patterns, growing frequency and severity of storms, and increasing ocean acidification.” U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Rising to the Urgent Challenge Strategic Plan for Responding to Accelerating Climate Change
Deeply disturbing are the many changes Climate Change may have for the world environment and even the Rochester, New York area. Check out this page often for a continual update of the changes we are already experiencing from Global Warming and those that could come--we track NewsLinks on Rochester and Global Warming here: Climate Rochester NewsLinks.
Page Contents: NewsLinks | List or Real Changes | List of Possible Changes | how Climate Change will impact our area | information | Take Action | Monitoring Global Warming |Official Global Warming Resources | Non-Official Global Warming Resources | Blogs | Discussions| Major Climate Change Studies | Climate Change Essays |
Like it or not, it’s becoming ever more evident that in New York State we can expect these possible scenarios:
Temperatures rising, a migration of plants and animals north as our climate adopts a Southern visage (though, most ((especially plants)) won’t move quickly enough), droughts, change in precipitation, lowering of Great Lakes water levels, coastal flooding, sea-level rise, shore-line change, extreme heat in our cities, more diseases (like Lyme disease, West Nile Virus, and maybe malaria) and more potent cases of poison ivy, air quality loss, agriculture changes, changes in the fisheries, changes in the dairy industry, changes in spruce/fir forest of the Adirondacks, alterations in winter recreation (did you know the NYS has “more ski areas than any other state in the nation”?), and an increase in ozone pollution."James A. Hansen: "Climate change is likely to be the predominant scientific, economic, political and moral issue of the 21st century. The fate of humanity and nature may depend upon early recognition and understanding of human-made effects on Earth's climate (Hansen, 2009)" Paleoclimate Implications for Human-Made Climate Change Draft Paper: Paleoclimate Implications for Human-Made Climate Change A draft paper with title above has been submitted for publication in the Belgrade Milankovitch Symposium volume -- the paper is now under review, so any criticisms are welcome. It was written in a bit of a rush when the editor told me there was a last chance to submit a paper before the book went to press (Springer).
Your acquaintances were watching a non-media network like FOX and missed Obama’s Climate Change talk? Send them here:
President Obama Speaks on Climate Change "Published on Jun 25, 2013 President Obama lays out his vision for a comprehensive plan to reduce carbon pollution, prepare our country for the impacts of climate change, and lead global efforts to fight it. June 25, 2013. " Read the official Transcript of this speech here.
In the Rochester NY area (Northeast America), we can reasonably expect some or all of these consequences of Climate Change in our region within the next 50 years or so:
- ...higher temperatures and increased heat waves have the potential to increase fatigue of materials in the water, energy, transportation, and telecommunications sectors; affect drinking water supply; cause a greater frequency of summer heat stress on plants and animals; alter pest populations and habits; affect the distribution of key crops such as apples, grapes, cabbage, and potatoes; cause reductions in dairy milk production; increase energy demand; and lead to more heat-related deaths and declines in air quality. Projected higher average annual precipitation and frequency of heavy precipitation events could also potentially increase the risks of several problems, including flash floods in urban areas and hilly regions; higher pollutant levels in water supplies; inundation of wastewater treatment plants and other vulnerable development in floodplains; saturated coastal lands and wetland habitats; flooded key rail lines, roadways, and transportation hubs; and travel delays. Sea level rise will increase risk of storm surge-related flooding, enhance vulnerability of energy facilities located in coastal areas, and threaten transportation and telecommunications facilities. Across the varied geography of New York State, many individuals, households, communities, and firms are at risk of experiencing climate change impacts. Some will be especially vulnerable to specific impacts due to their location and lack of resources. [Page 3, Report 11-18 Response to Climate Change in New York State (ClimAID)
- The Great Lakes water will become more acidic, even faster than our oceans. Warmer waters will affect temperature-sensitive fish (like trout which evolved in glacial cold waters), forcing them to move or die. Warmer lake waters cause less ice cover and increase evaporation which in turn lowers lake levels, causes more erosions of shorelines, reduces the cooling waters for nuclear power plants, and changes duck migration patterns. Lower water levels affect Great Lakes shipping and will starve hydroelectric plants of some of their water power.
- Wildlife will migrate northward to avoid heat. Some can escape up mountainsides where it is cooler, until they get to the top. Of course, it is very probable that most wildlife migration would be stopped by manmade barriers such as roads, canals, and backyard fences.
- Invasive species, which are by definition opportunists, will probably fill the gaps left by indigenous species. Weeds seem to benefit better from more carbon in the atmosphere than crops.
- There will be less snowfall and less snow cover, both of which are important to various local industries (skiing and snowmobiling). This means less protective blanketing for plants and animals that traditionally used this shield to weather the cold. The freezing and thawing schedule will be more erratic, making fruit growing more problematic. Also, not much is known about how the loss of snow cover will affect the microbes in our soil that evolved in a calmer climate.
- There will be more droughts in late summer and more precipitation in the form of rain in late winter that will mean more flooding and more toxic chemicals washing into our streams from unattended Brownfields, muddier planting seasons, more sewer overflows from the prevalence of combined sewer systems in our region which will in turn will put raw sewage into our rivers and lakes.
- Public Health issues such as Lyme Disease, Dengue Fever, Malaria, West Nile Virus,asthma, heatstroke, and ground-level ozone pollution will get worse (a threat to the healthiest athlete). Also it is possible that new pathogens will arise due to a disturbed ecosystem increasing the likelihood of insect-to-animal-to-human diseases.
- Migrating birds will find their food not ready or already taken by other critters because the synchronization of the birds’ arrival and their food will be disrupted.
- The weather will get whacky causing disruptions in the insurance industries that still use mostly historical data, instead of climate modeling, for predicting future costs. Home and property insurance could get prohibitively expensive, and put a tremendous burden on governments.
What’s most chilling of all is that none of these presently observed indicators of Climate Change for our region is decreasing in effect; nor are we doing anything on the level that would make them do so:
- Annual temperatures increase: “Annual temperatures have been rising throughout the state since the start of the 20th century. State average temperatures have increased by approximately 0.6ºF per decade since 1970, with winter warming exceeding 1.1ºF per decade.” (Page 16, Report 11-18 Response to Climate Change in New York State (ClimAID) funded by New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (2011))
- Increase in intensive precipitation events: “Intense precipitation events (heavy downpours) have increased in recent decades.” (Page 16, Report 11-18 Response to Climate Change in New York State (ClimAID) funded by New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (2011))
- Bird population shifts: “Analysis of four decades of Christmas Bird Count observations reveal that birds seen in North America during the first weeks of winter have moved dramatically northward—toward colder latitudes—over the past four decades.” (Page 3, Birds and Climate Change Ecological Disruption in Motion, Audubon, February 2009)
- Annual temperatures, reduced snowpack, earlier ice break up, and more: “Northeast: Since 1970, the annual average temperature in the Northeast has increased by 2°F, with winter temperatures rising twice this much.4 Warming has resulted in many other climate-related changes, including: More frequent days with temperatures above 90°F; A longer growing season; Increased heavy precipitation; Less winter precipitation falling as snow and more as rain; Reduced snowpack; Earlier breakup of winter ice on lakes and rivers; Earlier spring snowmelt resulting in earlier peak river flows; Rising sea surface temperatures and sea level” (Page 107, Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States | The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) 2009)
- Increase in lake effect snowfall: “There is also evidence of an increase in lake-effect snowfall along and near the southern and eastern shores of the Great Lakes since 1950.” (Page 38, Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States | The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) 2009)
- Increase plant frost damage: “A seemingly paradoxical impact of warming is that it appears to be increasing the risk of plant frost damage. Mild winters and warm, early springs, which are beginning to occur more frequently as climate warms, induce premature plant development and blooming, resulting in exposure of vulnerable young plants and plant tissues to subsequent late-season frosts.” (Page 73-74, Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States | The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) 2009)
- Plant growth and decomposition affected: “Ecosystem processes, such as those that control growth and decomposition, have been affected by climate change.” (Page 79, Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States | The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) 2009)
- Species shifting locations: “Large-scale shifts have occurred in the ranges of species and the timing of the seasons and animal migration, and are very likely to continue.” (Page 80, Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States | The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) 2009)
- Streamflow changes: “Historical data for rivers in the Northeast show changes in the amount and timing of flows. Over the last 100 years, average annual streamflow increased at 22 of 27 sites on rivers in New England (Hodgkins and Dudley 2005). In addition, peak flows came earlier. Streamflow data from 11 rural rivers show that high spring flow (as measured by the date on which half of the water discharged from January through May has passed the gage) is occurring 1 to 2 weeks earlier now than in the 1930s (Hodgkins et al. 2003). Average March flows have increased and average May flows have decreased, lowering the May peak and making flows more uniform during the snowmelt season. These changes are consistent with the impact of reductions in the snowpack and warmer late winter temperatures. Hartley and Dingman (1993) reached similar conclusions. They found that maximum river flows in watersheds across the region occurred approximately 5.4 days earlier for each 1.8 °F (1 °C) increase in average annual temperatures. Peak river flows on most of the streams analyzed also increased over the past 75 years. “(Page 11, Changing Climate, Changing Forests: The Impacts of Climate Change on Forests of the Northeastern United States and Eastern Canada, U.S. Forest Service, July 2012)
- Amphibians responding to Climate Change: “All amphibians in the Northeast require moist habitats, and so all are potentially sensitive to the changes in temperature and precipitation associated with climate change. One study suggests that amphibians are already responding, with some species calling 10 to 13 days earlier than they were at the beginning of the 20th century (Gibbs and Breisch 2001).” (Page 31, Changing Climate, Changing Forests: The Impacts of Climate Change on Forests of the Northeastern United States and Eastern Canada, U.S. Forest Service, July 2012)
- Invasive species thriving: “The northerly spread and ultimate range of the adelgid will likely be controlled by the severity, duration, and timing of minimum winter temperatures. Currently, the adelgid is restricted to areas where minimum winter temperatures stay above -20 °F (-29 °C). In a study of 36 sites across the Northeast, adelgid mortality was positively correlated with latitude and minimum temperatures recorded per site. Its cold hardiness also depends on time of year; the insects lose their ability to tolerate cold as the winter progresses (Skinner et al. 2003). Thus not only the severity but the timing of cold events is critical. If warming occurs as predicted, milder winters may remove the current limits to the adelgid’s range, and increased survival and fecundity may result in larger populations.” (Page 21, Changing Climate, Changing Forests: The Impacts of Climate Change on Forests of the Northeastern United States and Eastern Canada, U.S. Forest Service, July 2012)
- Wildlife affected by Climate Change: “Wildlife in northeastern forests is already being affected by climate change. 147 Species dependent on mountaintops and their predominantly coniferous habitats will be particularly at risk, due to limited opportunity to move upward in elevation.” (Page 32, Wildlife in a Warming World Confronting the Climate Crisis | (National Wildlife Federation 2013) • Declining Lake-Ice cover: “Declining Lake-Ice Cover: Climate change has already driven a huge decrease in winter ice cover throughout the Great Lakes from the period of 1973 to 2010.128 Ice cover across the Great Lakes has declined by an average of 71 percent. Lake St. Clair ice cover has declined the least at 37 percent, while Lake Ontario has declined the most at 88 percent. Declining ice cover could benefit the shipping industry, but would leave coastal wetlands and shorelines more vulnerable to erosion.” (Page 29, Wildlife in a Warming World Confronting the Climate Crisis | (National Wildlife Federation 2013).
- Increase in heat-related illnesses: “The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have identified a number of health effects associated with climate change, including an increase in heat-related illnesses and deaths from more frequent heat waves, a rise in asthma and other respiratory illnesses due to increased air pollution, higher rates of food- and water-related diseases, and an increase in the direct and indirect impacts of extreme weather events, like hurricanes.” (Page 6, Climate Change 101: Understanding and Responding to Global Climate Change published by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change. January 2011)
- Increase in incidents of ground-level ozone: “Research has shown that ground-level ozone formation is affected by weather and climate. Many studies have focused on the relationship between temperature and ozone concentrations (Wolff and Lioy, 1978; Atwater, 1984; Kuntasal and Chang, 1987; Wackter and Bayly, 1988; Wakim, 1989). For example, the large increase in ozone concentrations at ground level in 1988 in the United States and in parts of southern Canada can be attributed, in part, to meteorological conditions; 1988 was the third-hottest summer in the past 100 years. In general, the aforementioned studies suggest a nonlinear relationship between temperature and ozone concentrations at ground level: Below temperatures of 22-26C (70-80F), there is no relationship between ozone concentrations and temperature; above 32C (90F), there is a strong positive relationship.” ( The Regional Impacts of Climate Change 188.8.131.52. Air Quality and Ground-Level Ozone, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
- Livestock affected more by heat stress: “Heat stress already causes an estimated $2.4 billion in annual losses to U.S. livestock industries. Within the Northeast, despite the region’s historically moderate summers, losses have been estimated at $50.8 million per year for Pennsylvania, $24.9 million for New York, and $5.4 million for Vermont—the vast majority of which occurred in the dairy industry.9 Rising summer heat threatens to increase these losses.(Page 69, Confronting Climate Change in the U.S. Northeast from Northeast Climate Impacts Assessment (2007))
- Timing of seasons is off: “Timing of seasons: The blooming of certain flowers and the budding of leaves on trees are welcome harbingers of spring and important indicators of climate change. The firstbloom dates for lilacs, for example, have shifted four days earlier since the 1960s, and even greater shifts of six to eight days have been observed for grape vines and apple trees.” (Page 11, Confronting Climate Change in the U.S. Northeast from Northeast Climate Impacts Assessment (2007))
- Northeast extreme weather increasing: “Although rarer than nor’easters, the Northeast is also occasionally affected by tropical storms and hurricanes that form in the Atlantic during the summer and fall. There is growing evidence that the intensity of tropical storms and hurricanes has already been increasing;75,76,77 debate continues over a definitive link between global warming and increased hurricane frequency.78,79,80,81,82 It is clear that observed ocean warming—a key condition for the formation and strengthening of hurricanes—cannot be explained by natural cycles alone. Recent studies suggest that increased hurricane intensity, as exemplified by the rising number of category 4 and 5 hurricanes, is driven at least in part by global warming.” (Page 31, Confronting Climate Change in the U.S. Northeast from Northeast Climate Impacts Assessment (2007))
- More extreme weather driving up liability claims: “CORPORATE LIABILITY: Legal developments related to climate change are driving up liability claims for many insurers in the United States. These cases range from recovering costs of relocating communities away from land inundated by rising seas12 to restitution for damages from extreme events intensified by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.13 search: observe, current, present, have been, appears to be start with climate (Page 10, CLIMATE RISK DISCLOSURE BY INSURERS: Evaluating Insurer Responses to the NAIC Climate Disclosure Survey | A Ceres Report, September 2011
- NYS coastal sea level rising: “Climate change also has impacts on marine resources and coastal regions. Currently, sea levels are rising an average of 0.86 to 1.5 inches per decade, as measured by tide gauges, with an average of 1.2 inches per decade since 1900. Before the Industrial Revolution, the rate of increase had been approximately 0.34 to 0.43 inches per decade, mostly as a result of land subsidence (NYCPCC 2010). For the Long Island and New York City shorelines, models predict a rise of 7-12 inches by 2050 and 19-29 inches by 2080.” (Page 10, EPA Region 2 Climate Adaptation Plan Region 2 Climate Change Workgroup USEPA Region 2 New York, NY 9/18/2013)
- Climate Change causing plants to shift: “In an analysis of 866 peer-reviewed papers exploring the ecological consequences of climate change, nearly 60 percent of the 1598 species studied exhibited shifts in their distributions and/or phenologies over the 20-and 140-year time frame. Analyses of field based phenological responses have reported shifts as great as 5.1 days per decade, with an average of 2.3 days per decade across all species.” (Page 9, The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity | U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.3 May 2008 USDA Office of the Chief Economist United States Department of Agriculture)
- Forest pests increasing: “Climate plays a major role in driving, or at least influencing, infestations of these important forest insect species in the United States (e.g., Holsten et al. 1999; Logan et al. 2003a; Carroll et al. 2004; Tran et al. in press), and these recent large outbreaks are likely influenced by observed increases in temperature.” (Page 82, The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity | U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.3 May 2008 USDA Office of the Chief Economist United States Department of Agriculture)
Climate Science Rapid Response Team We have assembled a group of leading scientists to improve communication on the issue of climate change. Our group is committed to providing rapid, high-quality information to media and government. Our members have expertise in virtually all areas of climate science and they are available to share their current understanding. Questions and requests can be submitted below. Please include your contact information so that we can respond promptly. Contact Us
Is Cap and Trade a possible solution for manmade Climate Change, or does it simply just put money it the pockets of the people who cause Climate Change?
Online conversations on how Rochester is combating Climate Change. A chance for you to chime in. More essays connecting the dot between Climate Change and local issues here: Frank Regan - Rochester Environmental News Examiner - Environment | Examiner.com
- Climate Change, a failure of leadership and courage If you are accustomed to gathering environmental news from around this region, you must have come across this news that Syracuse has completed a draft Sustainability Plan. Comments sought on Syracuse sustainability plan The city of Syracuse has published a draft “sustainability plan” and is seeking public comments. The plan sets goals for the city in five areas: energy and green building; waste and recycling; natural environment; food systems and education. (May 23, 2012) syracuse.com There has been scant attention to it here in Rochester, except for this sour note: Lofty goals for Syracuse's first sustainability plan | Innovation Trail The city of Syracuse wants to get half its power from renewable energy sources by 2020. That's just one of the targets laid out in a draft version of Syracuse's first sustainability plan [PDF]. (May 31, 2012)Innovation Trail In truth this ‘sustainability plan’ is a ‘climate action plan’, and it’s a darn shame the authors and those who handled the authors failed in courage to call it what it is. These two sentences, buried in the first paragraph of the introduction, reveal this document’s true nature: (June 2012) more...
- Citizen scientists, critical in addressing Climate Change Some of the solutions that will help us adapt to and mitigate Climate Change are data collection for filling in knowledge gaps on specific issues threatening our environment and educating the public. So rather than focus on proving what 13 departments of our government (see below) already know about the science behind Climate Change, Department of Agriculture, Department of Commerce, Department of Defense, Department of Energy, Department of Health and Human Services, Department of the Interior, Department of State, Department of Transportation, Environmental Protection Agency, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation, Smithsonian Institution, United State Agency for International Development the new “The National Global Change Research Plan: 2012-2021” just released in April by the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) describes the threats that the various departments will be addressing and how to assess and disseminate that information internally between departments and externally to the public and other nations. (May 2012) more...
- Climate Change: Mom’s on the roof! The great issue for the media should be getting the message out to the public that our environment is in serious trouble. That is problematic because Climate Change and pollution don’t’ sell well, and they are out of the public’s comfort zone. However, as John Dewey said, “The media’s job is to interest the public in the public interest.” No matter that the more you learn about Climate Change the more troublesome it gets. Ignoring the inevitable repercussions of Climate Change is an irrational attitude towards a concrete danger. What I am sensing is that many who are trying to communicate about the looming Climate Change disaster are also preparing themselves for the inevitable—little or no action. That is because despite the vast accumulation of data and close observations behind this environmental issue, there is little public interest in addressing it. People just don’t want to hear about it. Few consider our environment and Climate Change when they vote, when they use energy, purchase goods, or think much about it at all. more...
- 12/24/2010 - Holiday thoughts on Rochester’s environment This year’s holiday season comes just after the dismal Climate Change talks in Cancun, Mexico. Mostly, they agreed to keep talking but no enforceable rules. Get one of the many summaries of the talks here: Report from the Cancún Climate Conference | Union of Concerned Scientists "Modest success, but not enough to save the planet | In the wake of last year’s disappointing U.N. climate conference in Copenhagen, some began to question the process and whether the 193-nation talks were the proper forum to produce a viable international climate agreement.” UCS | Union of Concerned Scientists Jobs and buying stuff and being cheery rule this holiday season--despite the growing realization that only a few (the rich) are going to survive this recession well and the rest of us… not so much. We like our news served hopeful and happily. The possibility that we too have a chance (which is becoming vanishingly remote) to be wildly rich keeps us from focusing on the needs of the majority and our environment. The lottery called the “American Dream” is being challenged by reality. more...
- Enjoy Rochester’s environment while you still can - Bill McKibben encouraged the audience at the GROWNY event last Saturday (11/13/2010) to “get outside and enjoy the outdoors.” Rather than one of those cheery nature-lover slogans, McKibben’s statement had an ominous component to it. Get outside and connect with your environment because it is changing, changing so quickly that you will never have it as good as you do now. more...
- 10/04/2010 - Change Rochester’s environment 10/10/10 Climate Change is going to possibly change our Rochester, NY-area environment in all sorts of ways. I don’t mean possible in the sense that one thinks when buying a lottery ticket. It’s possible you might win a zillion dollars when you buy a lottery ticket for a buck at your local convenience store, but don’t count on it. I mean possible Climate Changes scenarios in our area in the sense that a meteorologist means when she says a Force Four hurricane is coming to town tomorrow and you might want to act on that. Here’s a litany of the possible changes I am writing about: more...
Climate, Development and Equity "Climate change already affects all of us, but those most vulnerable to its impacts have done the least to cause the problem. Unless radical cuts in emissions take place soon, the world is set for dangerous climate change, with all of humanity at peril. This Volume presents voices from across the North and South, addressing the combined challenges of climate, development and equity. It highlights the urgency of taking action, but also shows why any attempt to tackle climate change must be grounded in equity. How will humanity fairly divide the rapidly diminishing global carbon budget, while allowing billions of people in the global South (and North) the means for economic, social and environmental well-being? How can United Nations negotiations move forward, and what are the real and false solutions? " -from The Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation
United States Global Change Research Program The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) coordinates and integrates federal research on changes in the global environment and their implications for society. The USGCRP began as a presidential initiative in 1989 and was mandated by Congress in the Global Change Research Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-606), which called for "a comprehensive and integrated United States research program which will assist the Nation and the world to understand, assess, predict, and respond to human-induced and natural processes of global change."
It's going to get complicated. Figuring out how, in such a complex system as our planet's climate, to assess the impact of climate change is going to be difficult. So, don't rely on just one resource or an opinion unsupported by facts.
- Climate Change, a failure of leadership and courage If you are accustomed to gathering environmental news from around this region, you must have come across this news that Syracuse has completed a draft Sustainability Plan. more...
- How does our region go about limiting green house gases? Check this out: Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) CO2 Budget Trading Program "The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is a cooperative effort by ten Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states to limit greenhouse gas emissions. RGGI is the first mandatory, market-based CO2 emissions reduction program in the United States. The states of Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, and Vermont are signatory states to the RGGI agreement. These ten states have capped CO2 emissions from the power sector, and will require a 10 percent reduction in these emissions by 2018. "
- Climate change will hit home—it’s only a matter of how hard. (July 29, 2007) The latest in climate forecasts for our region, NEW YORK is the report by Union of Concerned Scientists.
- Climate Change - NYS Dept. of Environmental Conservation New Yorkers are Working on Many Fronts Climate change touches every New Yorker, and every facet of our lives. Whether you are a government official, in business, affiliated with an institution, or a private individual, you have a role to play in reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the other greenhouse gases, and in preparing for climate change that cannot be avoided. This website tells how the New York State government is working to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt as the climate changes. It also gives information about how New Yorkers can move toward a climate-friendly economy and lifestyle. --from New York State Department of Environmental Conservation
- Climate Choices in the Northeast: Northeast Climate Impacts Assessment Time for climate action in the U.S. Northeast is now A new report by independent scientists shows that if heat-trapping emissions are not significantly curtailed, global warming will substantially change the Northeast's character and economy due to such impacts as rising sea levels, dangerously hot days, and lower crop productivity. But there is good news in the report too: individuals, businesses, and governments have a rich array of strategies at their disposal today to reduce emissions and avoid the most severe consequences of climate change. -- from Climate Choices
- US National Assessment of Climate Change. Overview: Northeast Climate Change Impacts on the United States The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change Overview: Northeast By the National Assessment Synthesis Team, US Global Change Research Program Published in 2000
- Scientists: Global warming has already changed oceans - Politics - Bradenton.com In Washington state, oysters in some areas haven't reproduced for four years, and preliminary evidence suggests that the increasing acidity of the ocean could be the cause. In the Gulf of Mexico, falling oxygen levels in the water have forced shrimp to migrate elsewhere. (June 9, 09) Bradenton.com | Homepage
- Climate change in Lake Superior ice A science fair project on Bayfield harbor shows the ice season there has shrunk. What started as a high school science fair project is the latest piece of evidence that global warming is affecting Lake Superior. (April 6, 09) StarTribune.com: Breaking news, video, blogs and more from Minneapolis, St. Paul and around Minnesota
- "What’s at Stake How Global Warming Threatens the Buckeye State" -from Environment Ohio Research & Policy Center | Timothy Telleen-Lawton Frontier Group | Amy Gomberg | Environment Ohio Research & Policy Center | December 2008
- Gardener's Guide - Will Your State's Tree or Flower Continue to Grow in Your State? - National Wildlife Federation Plants across the nation are affected by global warming. You have probably seen that many plants in your backyard are blooming earlier. Global warming will mean that many native and iconic plants may no longer find suitable climate conditions in major portions of their historic range. Click on your state to see if your official State Trees or State Flowers may be affected."-- from National Wildlife Federation
- Confronting Climate Change in the Great Lakes Region: Impacts on Our Communities and Ecosystems --from Union of Concerned Scientists --Reach about changes in the New York area: Great Lakes New York Overview "From the Finger Lakes to fertile farmlands, New York's natural splendor includes such sights as Niagara Falls and the foliage displays that attract millions annually. New York's farm and rural landscapes are the source of bountiful and varied crops, making New York the third largest producer of dairy products and sixth largest producer of fruit crops in the country. The shorelines and waters of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario are an integral part of the landscape as well as the economy of New York, attracting outdoor enthusiasts with opportunities for anglers, boaters, campers, hunters and wildlife watchers. They also provide important means for transporting goods produced in the region as well as provide hydroelectric power."
- Given that Global Warming is occurring and that it’s occurring all over the world, then Rochester will experience the consequences of Global Warming. (Neat little syllogism, that I learned in philosophy 101.) Wouldn’t we want to know what’s coming at us, or more likely because of the lag time in energy dispersal in a weather system as large as Earth, our children? As a matter of fact, wouldn’t everyone want to know how Global Warming is going to affect the Rochester area—business leaders, politicians, citizens of our community, teachers, businesses, hospitals, farmers, real estate people, lawyers, and well, just about anyone? Seems rational. So, if you do, check out this comprehensive report on what Global Warming may bring to our area and possible solutions we might consider for our area. Confronting Climate Change in the U.S. Northeast Prepared by the Northeast Climate Impacts Assessment Synthesis Team:
- Learn about Climate Change in the Northeast and take actions. Climate Choices in the Northeast "See how global warming is changing the Northeast and how choices we make today will determine our children's and grandchildren's quality of life." --From Climate Choices www.climatechoices.org
- Climate Change in our region: How will Climate Change affect the Great Lakes area? Find out: Climate Change in the Great Lakes Region - Starting a Public Discussion "Global warming is an undeniable reality, according to the latest (2007) report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), an international group of scientists convened by the United Nations. The evidence is clear and noticeable: a rising average global air temperature, widespread melting of glaciers and ice, and rising mean sea levels worldwide. The report sounds the alarm that the Earth is warming, and that major components of our climate system are already responding to that warming."
- What's Global Warming looking like in New York State? Great Lakes New York Overview From the Finger Lakes to fertile farmlands, New York's natural splendor includes such sights as Niagara Falls and the foliage displays that attract millions annually. New York's farm and rural landscapes are the source of bountiful and varied crops, making New York the third largest producer of dairy products and sixth largest producer of fruit crops in the country. The shorelines and waters of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario are an integral part of the landscape as well as the economy of New York, attracting outdoor enthusiasts with opportunities for anglers, boaters, campers, hunters and wildlife watchers. They also provide important means for transporting goods produced in the region as well as provide hydroelectric power. --from Great Lakes Main Index from Union of Concerned Scientists
- Arctic snow and ice is melting fast and portents change from global warming. Get the facts from the experts as they monitor this concern National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) "We support research into our world's frozen realms: the snow, ice, glacier, frozen ground, and climate interactions that make up Earth's cryosphere. Scientific data, whether taken in the field or relayed from satellites orbiting Earth, form the foundation for the scientific research that informs the world about our planet and our climate systems. "
- The Copenhagen Diagnosis The Copenhagen Diagnosis: Climate Science Report It is more than three years since the drafting of text was completed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). In the meantime, many hundreds of papers have been published on a suite of topics related to human-induced climate change. The purpose of this report is to synthesize the most policy-relevant climate science published since the close-off of material for the last IPCC report. The rationale is two-fold.
- What are our neighbors Thinking about Climate Change? As you know, the boundaries we set up to define our property, our towns, counties, states, and counties are simply ignored by Nature. The only boundaries that Nature knows are the laws of physics. That’s why we over here in the Rochester, NY region should care about what our friends across Lake Ontario are thinking of doing about Climate Change. It will matter how our neighbors address climate change: Check this out: Climate Change Adapting to in Ontario: Report of the Expert Panel on Climate Change Adaptation November 2009 "Preface - As part of the government’s Climate Change Action Plan, the Expert Panel on Climate Change Adaptation was appointed by the Minister of the Environment in December 2007. The Panel’s mandate was “to help the Ontario government, municipalities and Ontarians prepare and plan for the impact of climate change in areas such as public health, environment, infrastructure, and economy”. "
- Odd-ball Winter Weather: Global Warming’s Wake-Up Call for the Northern United States N A T I O N A L W I L D L I F E F E D E R A T I O N 2 0 1 0 "Global warming is having a seemingly peculiar effect on winter weather in the northern United States. Winter is becoming milder and shorter on average; spring arrives 10 to 14 days earlier than it did just 20 years ago. But most snowbelt areas are still experiencing extremely heavy snowstorms. Some places are even expected to have more heavy snowfall events as storm tracks shift northward and as reduced ice cover on the Great Lakes increases lake-effect snowfalls. Even as global warming slowly changes the character of winter, we will still experience significant year-to-year variability in snowfall and temperature because many different factors are at play. "
- Northeast Regional Climate Center "Established in 1983, the Northeast Regional Climate Center (NRCC) is located in the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at Cornell University. It serves the 12-state region that includes: Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and West Virginia. Major funding is provided through a contract with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The Center's staff works cooperatively with the National Climatic Data Center, the National Weather Service, state climate offices, and other interested scientists in the Northeast to acquire and disseminate accurate, up-to-date climate data and information. "
- Adapting to Urban Heat: A Tool Kit for Local Governments Even Rochester, NY is going to experience hotter days more often in the summer and to protect our public health we need to plan. –from Georgetown Climate Center “The nonpartisan Georgetown Climate Center seeks to advance effective climate, energy, and transportation policies in the United States—policies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and help communities adapt to climate change.”
EcoAdapt, founded by a team of some of the earliest adaptation thinkers and practitioners in the field, has one goal - creating a robust future in the face of climate change. We bring together diverse players in the conservation, policy, science, and development communities to reshape planning and management in response to rapid climate change.
Much has changed in the public's attitude towards the issue of Climate Change. Used to be that the doubters ruled, now most scientists and even the public agree that there's enough data to show that this issue is a great concern. Below are places online that describe the all-pervasiveness of this issue.
- Special Report Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX) "Extreme weather and climate events, interacting with exposed and vulnerable human and natural systems, can lead to disasters. This Special Report explores the social as well as physical dimensions of weather- and climate-related disasters, considering opportunities for managing risks at local to international scales. SREX was approved and accepted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on 18 November 2011 in Kampala, Uganda. "
- Climate Change 101: Understanding and Responding to Global Climate Change | Pew Center on Global Climate Change To inform the climate change dialogue, the Pew Center on Global Climate Change has produced a series of brief reports entitled Climate Change 101: Understanding and Responding to Global Climate Change. These reports provide a reliable and understandable introduction to climate change. They cover climate science and impacts, climate adaptation, technological solutions, business solutions, international action, federal action, recent action in the U.S. states, and action taken by local governments. The overview serves as a summary and introduction to the series. --from Pew Center on Global Climate Change | Working Together ...Because Climate Change is Serious Business
- Earthbeat Radio Earthbeat Radio is the only hour-long broadcast of any kind in America dedicated entirely to the global warming crisis. Syndicated to over 50 stations nationwide from our Washington, D.C., studios, Earthbeat takes on every aspect of the climate / clean energy issue with interviews, features, humor, and commentary. Launched in 2003, we are an independent radio show produced out of Pacifica Radio’s flagship station WPFW 89.3 FM in Washington.
- Stay current with Climate Change information from Dr. James Hansen: Makiko's Page What Path is the Real World Following? Makiko Sato & James Hansen Columbia University web page maintained by Makiko Sato (email@example.com) Our aim is to help people understand global climate change — and how the factors that drive climate are changing. We start with climate diagnostics — people are usually most interested in climate change itself. But cause-and-effect analysis requires also data on climate forcings (which drive climate change) and feedbacks (which amplify or diminish climate change).
- Electronic Green Journal Convenient Resources for "An Inconvenient Truth" Frederick Stoss, University at Buffalo, State University of New York
- NPR has a great introduction to the problem of Global Warming. "NPR : What We Can Do About Global Warming It’s part of the NRR series on Global Warming called NPR : Climate Connections
- An Inconvenient Truth - Humanity is sitting on a ticking time bomb. If the vast majority of the world's scientists are right, we have just ten years to avert a major catastrophe that could send our entire planet into a tail-spin of epic destruction involving extreme weather, floods, droughts, epidemics and killer heat waves beyond anything we have ever experienced. If that sounds like a recipe for serious gloom and doom -- think again. From director Davis Guggenheim comes the Sundance Film Festival hit, AN INCONVENIENT TRUTH, which offers a passionate and inspirational look at one man's fervent crusade to halt global warming's deadly progress in its tracks by exposing the myths and misconceptions that surround it. That man is former Vice President Al Gore, who, in the wake of defeat in the 2000 election, re-set the course of his life to focus on a last-ditch, all-out effort to help save the planet from irrevocable change. In this eye-opening and poignant portrait of Gore and his "traveling global warming show," Gore also proves himself to be one of the most misunderstood characters in modern American public life. Here he is seen as never before in the media - funny, engaging, open and downright on fire about getting the surprisingly stirring truth about what he calls our "planetary emergency" out to ordinary citizens before it's too late.
- Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions .These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012.
- Global Warming: Early Warning Signs Global temperature in 1998 was the hottest in the historical record, and the temperature increase over the 20th century is likely to be the highest of the past millennium. Global average temperatures have warmed about one degree Fahrenheit (0.6�C) since 1900. The ten warmest years on record have occurred since 1987, seven of them since 1994.
- Climate-L.org A Knowledgebase of UN and Intergovernmental Activities Addressing Global Climate Change
- Storms of My Grandchildren: The Truth About the Coming Climate Catastrophe and Our Last Chance to Save Humanity, by James Hansen, there is, despite all the explanations, science and cajoling, just one message, crystal and clear: Get the carbon dioxide levels down to 350 parts per million or we’re in trouble. Who is Dr. Hansen? James Hansen - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Hansen is best known for his research in the field of climatology, his testimony on climate change to congressional committees in 1988 that helped raise broad awareness of global warming, and his advocacy of action to limit the impacts of climate change. "
- Copenhagen De-briefing An Analysis of COP15 forLong-term Cooperation "Climatico is pleased to announce the release of its latest report entitled, “Copenhagen De-briefing: An Analysis of COP15 for Long-term Cooperation” This report analyses key issues under discussion in Copenhagen including: finance, technology transfer, REDD+, CDM and JI, as well as the ongoing conflicts between Annex I and Non Annex I countries. The Copenhagen Accord is also discussed along with its potential effect on future negotiations. Download the report at: Copenhagen De-briefing An Analysis of COP15 forLong-term Cooperation For enquiries, please contact our press office at: firstname.lastname@example.org or visit us online at: www.climaticoanalysis.org . "
- EarthWire - Climate - Recent News
- RealClimate "RealClimate is a commentary site on climate science by working climate scientists for the interested public and journalists. We aim to provide a quick response to developing stories and provide the context sometimes missing in mainstream commentary. The discussion here is restricted to scientific topics and will not get involved in any political or economic implications of the science. All posts are signed by the author(s), except ‘group’ posts which are collective efforts from the whole team. This is a moderated forum. "
- Climate Feedback Climate Feedback is a blog hosted by Nature Reports: Climate Change to facilitate lively and informative discussion on the science and wider implications of global warming. The blog aims to be an informal forum for debate and commentary on climate science in our journals and others, in the news, and in the world at large.
- Nature Reports Climate Change Global climate change is arguably the most far-reaching challenge of this century. A free-access web resource from Nature Publishing Group, Nature Reports Climate Change is dedicated to authoritative in-depth reporting on climate change and its wider implications for policy, society and the economy.
- Climate Change: What is being done about it? There’s that old joke that everyone talks about the weather, but nobody does anything about it. But, around the world there are being things done about Climate Change—more than people sitting at their computers ranting about the newest factoid or arguing point to back up one’s Weltanschauung. Global Ideas | Deutsche Welle Melting ice caps, catastrophic hurricanes, floods and drought plunging entire regions into a water crisis. These are the drastic images often associated with climate change. But what's actually being done on the ground to halt global warming? What kind of projects are helping to reduce emissions, inform people and spur them to change their lifestyles? (March 5, 2010) [More on Climate Change in our area]
- Global Ideas | Deutsche Welle Melting ice caps, catastrophic hurricanes, floods and drought plunging entire regions into a water crisis. These are the drastic images often associated with climate change. But what's actually being done on the ground to halt global warming? What kind of projects are helping to reduce emissions, inform people and spur them to change their lifestyles? Each week GLOBAL IDEAS visits a new destination and reports on a new project, so check back often. -from Home | Deutsche Welle
- Tyndall°Centre for Climate Change Research ® | "We bring together scientists, economists, engineers and social scientists who are working to develop sustainable responses to climate change. We work not just within the research community, but also with business leaders, policy advisors, the media and the public in general."
- Global Warming - National Wildlife Federation "Our country is home to a diverse array of wildlife ranging from the highest peaks, to the driest deserts, to freshwater and marine environments and to all the places in between. The abundant and diverse wildlife resources, which are so important to our culture and well-being, face a bleak future if we do not address global warming. "
- Stop Trashing the Climate "Stop Trashing the Climate provides compelling evidence that preventing waste and expanding reuse, recycling, and composting programs — that is, aiming for zero waste — is one of the fastest, cheapest, and most effective strategies available for combating climate change. This report documents the link between climate change and unsustainable patterns of consumption and wasting, dispels myths about the climate benefits of landfill gas recovery and waste incineration, outlines policies needed to effect change, and offers a roadmap for how to significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions within a short period. "
- ClimateOne "Climate One at The Commonwealth Club is a thriving leadership dialogue on energy, the environment and the economy. It brings together top thinkers and doers from business, government, academia and advocacy groups to advance the discussion about a clean energy future. "
- Take a Climate Change Crash Course: Learn more about the major issue of our time, Climate Change, from a local expert. Our future will be shaped by Climate Change and all that we do will be now viewed through the lens of Climate Change. So know all you can: Climate Change Crash Course « The Cost of Energy "The Climate Change Crash Course (“4C”) is an experiment in creating a crowd-sourced, one-stop guide to climate change resources, geared to three levels of familiarity with the subject: Newbies, Nerds, and Ninjas. Each of those sections has three subsections: Must Reads, Extended Reading, and Web Sites Worth Tracking. As a bonus, there’s also a section on my favorite online research tools. "
- Climate Communication Science and Outreach "Climate Communication is a non-profit science and outreach project funded by the Rockefeller Brothers Fund and the ClimateWorks Foundation. Climate Communication operates as a project of the Aspen Global Change Institute, a non-profit organization dedicated to furthering the scientific understanding of Earth systems and global environmental change. "
- Climate Change at the National Academies | The National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council are the nation’s pre-eminent source of high-quality, objective advice on science, engineering, and health matters. Most of our work is conducted by the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine. The Research Council, the operating arm of the NAS and NAE, performs its studies and workshops through five major divisions;Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, Earth and Life Studies, Engineering and Physical Sciences, Policy and Global Affairs, and the Transportation Research Board.
- Tired of reading about Climate Change and all those graphs and data? Solution watch these Climate Change videos: Climate Change Understanding, Factors and Solutions playlist "A playlist containing a huge amount of information (documentaries, presentations, scientific lectures) about everything climate change/warming/destruction and some great possible solutions for stopping and reversing this trend."
Climate Change explained by the experts. Too often Climate Change, the most important issue of this century, is explained by a media that doesn’t understand it. Listen and watch these climate experts explain through a series of short videos the answers to the questions most folks have about Climate Change. What is it? What effect will it have? How do they know it’s happening? Rather than depending on your favorite pundit with his or her favorite agenda, let those who have been deeply involved with the research behind Climate Change explain this complex issue in a thoughtful and entertaining way. These are very well-done videos, short and to the point, and readily understandable. Check them out and then send them to your Climate Change denying friends: NSF.gov - To What Degree? - What Science Is Telling Us About Climate Change - How Do We Know? "Leading climate change experts discuss one of the most complex puzzles ever to confront mankind." nsf.gov - National Science Foundation - US National Science Foundation (NSF)
There are ways you can become involve with solving Climate Change including several groups in the Rochester, NY area where you can join up and make a difference in our area's affect on Climate Change.
- How specifically can communities around the Great Lakes (that includes Rochester, NY) meet the challenges of Climate Change? Check out ‘Great Lakes Climate Change Adaptation Toolkit’. “EcoAdapt and Freshwater Future are committed in helping the Great Lakes communities respond to the effects of climate change impacts, and have developed the Great Lakes Climate Change Adaptation Toolkit, with funding support from the Kresge Foundation. The toolkit is one component of Freshwater Future’s Great Lakes Community Climate Program, which includes workshops to train community groups how to consider climate change impacts in their work and a grants program to assist with implementation of on-the-ground projects.”
- Cool Rochester--Save money, energy, the planet http://www.coolrochester.org/ Cool Rochester is a non-profit group composed of concerned citizens who are engaging the Rochester community in the fight against climate change. We believe dramatic reductions of carbon dioxide emissions are necessary to preserve and protect a functioning planet for this (and future) generations. Our goal is to reduce Rochester area carbon emissions one billion pounds in three years. To achieve this, we need to recruit 80,000 households and workplaces to participate in our program, to reduce their emissions by 25%. By unleashing the power of community we can save energy, save money and save the planet. Join Cool Rochester. [RENewsletter June 28, 09]
- Finger Lakes Climate Fund "The Finger Lakes Climate Fund works to promote energy efficiency projects in the Finger Lakes area while strengthening our regional economy and assisting local families in need. Carbon offset donations are used for grants to fund energy efficiency projects that would not otherwise be possible in low to moderate income households in the Finger Lakes region. These grants help pay for insulation, air sealing, energy efficient heating equipment, and other upgrades to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. The Finger Lakes Climate Fund is also investigating other cost-effective local carbon offset projects such as solar hot water, solar photovoltaic, biomass heating, and other renewable energy projects. The Finger Lakes Climate Fund is a way for people to support our community while offsetting their home, plane, or vehicle pollution "
- Citizens Campaign for the Environment Fight Climate Change! The science is clear that human activities are contributing to global climate change, and urgent action is needed. While local and state governments are working to reduce emissions, a coordinated federal approach is critical for the United States to transform our behavior, energy use patterns, and economy to meet the challenge of the climate crisis. --from CCE - Water Protection Public Health Energy Renewable Policy Toxic Wildlife Chemical Contamination Subscribe Newsletter Jobs Calendar Pollution Air Quality Advocacy Farmingdale White Plains Albany Syracuse Buffalo
- 350.org is an international campaign that's building a movement to unite the world around solutions to the climate crisis—the solutions that science and justice demand. Our mission is to inspire the world to rise to the challenge of the climate crisis—to create a new sense of urgency and of possibility for our planet.
- Energy/Global Warming Committee --"Addressing climate change is Sierra Club’s number one priority. Find the 2% Solution: "The world's scientists agree: Global warming is real, here, and happening faster than anyone predicted. But scientists also say we can curb global warming and its consequences -- if we take bold, comprehensive action now that adds up to at least an 80 percent cut in carbon emissions by 2050, or 2 percent a year. " "from the Rochester Reginal Group Sierra Club | Sierra Club
- Sign up for the email list Dr. James E. Hansen "Storms of My Grandchildren", by James Hansen Drs. Makiko Sato and James Hansen are constructing a webpage, Updating the Climate Science: What Path is the Real World Following? In addition to updating figures in the book Storms of My Grandchildren (see LA Times review), this page will present updated graphs and discussion of key quantities that help provide understanding of how climate change is developing and how effective or ineffective global actions are in affecting climate forcings and future climate change. A few errata in Storms are also provided on the "Update" webpage.
- Climatecrossroads ClimateCrossroads.org fuses social-networking opportunities with fresh environmental journalism and authoritative global warming expertise -- giving it the ability to connect users with a wealth of multimedia information, expert opinions, and each other. ClimateCrossroads.org, created by the Sierra Club, is the go-to site for people eager --after eight years of inaction on global warming -- to share ideas, information, opinions and opportunities to make real and urgent progress on climate change.
- NYPIRG’s 1Sky New York Campaign "NYPIRG has partnered with 1Sky, a national coalition of hundreds of organizations and thousands of individuals to fight climate change. Our goal is to create the momentum for federal climate change and energy legislation that will ensure a 21st century “green” economy. NYPIRG’s 1Sky New York Campaign will unite individuals and organizations across the state behind a common set of goals; the 1Sky Solutions. The 1Sky Solutions are based on the scientific bottom line; they represent the action that must be taken today in order to preserve the planet." NYPIRG
- Find out how you can help collect data on extreme weather data for Climate Change Extreme weather forecasts: web users unite to power climate change project | Environment | The Guardian Home PC users invited to carry out pioneering research by tracking links between global warming and extreme weather • Read more about the project here, see a gallery of the simulations here, and watch a video by the project's founders (November 10, 2010) weatherathome | Climateprediction.net "You’ve heard of climate change, but what does that actually mean for the weather in the region where you live? Could it be that you are going to see an increase in the number of damaging weather events? Or could the weather actually be getting nicer? You now have the opportunity to help scientists find the answers to questions like these, by taking part in the climateprediction.net “weatherathome” experiment. "
- Climate Change | Jumo "Climate change refers to the long-term change in weather patterns. Generally, it may be used as another term for global warming. Greenhouse gas emissions are considered a leading cause of climate change, which is evidenced by increasing temperatures and a greater incidence of extreme weather, such as hurricanes and droughts, across the globe. " - from “Jumo is a social network connecting individuals and organizations who want to change the world. Leveraging connection technologies, Jumo enables people to find, follow and support those working toward solutions on the ground in their community and in regions across the globe. Jumo is founded and directed by Chris Hughes, co-founder of Facebook and director of online organizing for Barack Obama’s 2008 Presidential campaign.”
- Climate Change and Our Kids "Scientists say that climate change is happening right now. We see it in the brutal heat, drought, wildfires, and storms afflicting much of the United States. And carbon pollution is also contributing to unprecedented levels of childhood asthma. As parents, we are deeply concerned global warming's impact on what we hold most dear: our kids. If we want our children to have a healthy future, we have to stop global warming. It starts with action from our leaders, and that requires action from us. Please sign up here to join Climate Parents "
- Stop climate change "Faced with the choice of deadly, dirty, dangerous energy like coal, oil and nuclear power, or safe, clean and renewable power, what would you decide? Renewable energy, smartly used, can and will meet our demands. No oil spills, no climate change, no radiation danger, no nuclear waste – simply energy we can trust. We can achieve a world with 100% renewable energy. Will you make that choice? " GreenPeace International
- ENERGY & CLIMATE CHANGE "The Western New York Environmental Alliance (the Alliance) is an umbrella group that is committed to the preservation and restoration of our regional environment. The work of the Alliance takes place in Working Groups focused on environmental topics. To get involved with energy and climate issues in Western New York, read on to learn more, join the Working Group listserv, and come to a meeting. [in Buffalo] -from GROWWNY.org
- TckTckTck"represents an unprecedented network of more than 400 nonprofit organizations led by GCCA, the Global Call for Climate Action. Our shared mission is to mobilize civil society and galvanize public support to ensure a safe climate future for people and nature, to promote the low-carbon transition of our economies, and to accelerate the adaptation efforts in communities already affected by climate change. "
- Citizens Climate Lobby "The purposes of Citizens Climate Lobby are to 1) create the political will for a stable climate and 2) to empower individuals to have breakthroughs in exercising their personal and political power. "
Cool Rochester--Save money, energy, the planet Cool Rochester is a non-profit group composed of concerned citizens who are engaging the Rochester community in the fight against climate change. We believe dramatic reductions of carbon dioxide emissions are necessary to preserve and protect a functioning planet for this (and future) generations. Our goal is to reduce Rochester area carbon emissions one billion pounds in three years. To achieve this, we need to recruit 80,000 households and workplaces to participate in our program, to reduce their emissions by 25%. By unleashing the power of community we can save energy, save money and save the planet. Join Cool Rochester.
Special sites that track and monitor environmental changes.
- Climate Research "An old saying expresses the thought that "climate is what you expect, weather is what you get." But what can we expect from the climate of the United States, and the whole world, in the coming decade — or even in the next millennium? As all life on Earth depends on a favorable climate to survive, that's an important question, a question that researchers at NOAA are trying to answer. NOAA's research laboratories, Climate Program Office, and research partners conduct a wide range of research into complex climate systems and how they work. These scientists want to improve their ability to predict climate variation in both the shorter term, like cold spells or periods of drought, and over longer terms like centuries and beyond. NOAA researchers will continue their consistent and uninterrupted monitoring of the Earth's atmosphere that can give us clues about long-term changes in the global climate. The data collected worldwide by NOAA researchers aids our understanding of, and ability to forecast changes in, complex climatic systems. Using ever more powerful and sophisticated computer systems, NOAA researchers are working on numeric modeling of climate systems that will help improve the accuracy of climate forecasts. " -from NOAA Research
- The Keeling Curve A DAILY RECORD OF ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE FROM SCRIPPS INSTITUTION OF OCEANOGRAPHY AT UC SAN DIEGO "Concentrations of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide in the global atmosphere are approaching 400 parts per million (ppm) for the first time in human history This website provides daily updates, analysis, and information on the state of climate " from Scripps Institution of Oceanography 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, California 92093
- Climate Action Tracker "This "Climate Action Tracker" is an independent science-based assessment, which tracks the emission commitments and actions of countries. The website provides an up-to-date assessment of individual national pledges to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. "
- The Daily Climate The Daily Climate works to increase public understanding of climate disruption, including its scope and scale, potential solutions and the political processes that impede or advance them. Establishing bonds of trust with our readers is a fundamental editorial objective; all of our reporting, editing and publishing adheres to the highest standards of journalism, including honesty, accuracy, balance and objectivity.
- Clean Air-Cool Planet Clean Air-Cool Planet – the leading science-based, bipartisan non-profit organization dedicated to finding and promoting solutions to global warming
- Be a part of monitoring Climate Change: Climate Interactive "Climate Interactive is building a community that creates, shares, and uses credible models, accessible simulations, and related media in order to improve the way leaders and citizens around the world think about the climate. Our purpose is to get these sims and insights into the world as accessible products so they can be tweaked, enhanced, translated, distributed and used to power change around the world. We’re building sims that are easy to use by climate analysts, communicators, and leaders of many types, and that provide immediate feedback, so users can see the results of different scenarios on atmospheric carbon levels and temperature. And we're sharing our own analysis so that leaders have access to powerful insights. In particular, the "Climate Action Initiative" which includes policy leaders such as Dr. Robert Corell is using our simulations to make change at the highest levels of governments."
- Solve Climate Chronicles for a New America The adequacy of the global response to climate change rests in America's hands. The power of its $13 trillion economy and its unparalleled per capita appetite for carbon make its influence, both at home and abroad, decisive. Policymakers know what needs to be done to solve the problem of global warming. They also know that action even in this time of economic distress is imperative and affordable, for both recovery and future prosperity must be green. Every honest citizen of the world knows the price of inaction is unthinkable and unquantifiable, for inaction leads only to catastrophic human suffering from natural systems run amok.
- Quarterly SO<sub>2</sub> Emissions Tracking EPA regularly posts updates of quarterly sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions data from coal-fired power plants subject to the Acid Rain Program to make it easy for the public to track changes in emissions from these sources. --from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
- Reuters AlertNet - Climate Change Reuters AlertNet is a humanitarian news network based around a popular website. It aims to keep relief professionals and the wider public up-to-date on humanitarian crises around the globe.
- NCDC: * National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) * Welcome to the National Climatic Data Center website. The Center has long served the Nation as a national resource for climate information. NCDC's data is used to address issues that span the breadth of this Nation's interests. As climate knows no boundaries, we work closely with scientists and researchers world-wide. We develop both national and global data sets that have been used by both government and the private sector to maximize the resource provided by our climate and minimize the risks of climate variability and weather extremes. The Center has a statutory mission to describe the climate of the United States and NCDC acts as the Nation's Scorekeeper regarding the trends and anomalies of weather and climate. NCDC's climate data have been used in a variety of applications including agriculture, air quality, construction, education, energy, engineering, forestry, health, insurance, landscape design, livestock management, manufacturing, recreation and tourism, retailing, transportation, and water resources management among other areas. Our data and products fulfill needs ranging from building codes to power plant and space shuttle design. Our Nation's climate data are critical to our modern lifestyles.
- Cornell Chronicle: Songbirds adapt to human-driven forest changes Can species quickly evolve when humans rapidly change their habitats? The answer, in some cases, is yes. A new study of North American songbirds finds that major changes in wing shape have occurred over the last 100 years in response to human-driven forest changes. (march 9, 2010) Cornell Chronicle Online [more on Wildlife in our area]
- Northeast Regional Climate Center Established in 1983, the Northeast Regional Climate Center (NRCC) is located in the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at Cornell University. It serves the 12-state region that includes: Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and West Virginia. Major funding is provided through a contract with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The Center's staff works cooperatively with the National Climatic Data Center, the National Weather Service, state climate offices, and other interested scientists in the Northeast to acquire and disseminate accurate, up-to-date climate data and information.
- ScienceInsider: Environment/Climate Archives | Science "Founded in 1880 on $10,000 of seed money from the American inventor Thomas Edison, Science has grown to become the world's leading outlet for scientific news, commentary, and cutting-edge research, with the largest paid circulation of any peer-reviewed general-science journal. Through its print and online incarnations, Science reaches an estimated worldwide readership of more than one million. In content, too, the journal is truly international in scope; some 35 to 40 percent of the corresponding authors on its papers are based outside the United States. Its articles consistently rank among world's most cited research "
- Changing Climate "The OSU Climate Change Outreach Team is a partnership among multiple departments within The Ohio State University. The team’s goal is to help localize the climate change issue by bringing related research and resources to residents of Ohio and the Great Lakes region. "
- THE CLIMATE REGISTRY "is a nonprofit collaboration among North American states, provinces, territories and Native Sovereign Nations that sets consistent and transparent standards to calculate, verify and publicly report greenhouse gas emissions into a single registry."
Open Climate Science 101 - Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast is a comprehensive introduction to all aspects of global warming. Written in an accessible way, and assuming no specialist prior knowledge, this book examines the processes that control climate change and climate stability, from the distant past to the distant future. Second Edition now shipping. Thoroughly revised and updated but basically the same material. Open Climate 101 brings the experience of University of Chicago class PHSC13400, part of our "core" science curriculum for non-science major undergraduates based on this text, to the internet at large. You can watch video lectures followed by quizzes to stimulate your understanding, and work your way through tutorial exercises letting you get hands-on with interactive models and simple mathematical ideas. You can work at your own pace, on your own time. You don't get University of Chicago credit, but it's free, and if you complete the exercises you can download a certificate of accomplishment signed by me. On-line interactive computer models allow you to play with the physics and chemistry behind the global warming forecast. Video lectures were recorded in Fall Quarter, 2009, University of Chicago.
Because the Climate Change issue is science, scientist continually collect data analyze it and present it to the public. Good to know your facts.
Climate Change - NYS Dept. of
Environmental Conservation "To help
minimize risks from climate change, New York
State has set two goals: Reduce emissions of
heat-trapping greenhouse gases by 80 percent
from 1990 levels, by the year 2050 ("80 by 50"),
and Improve resilience to climate change in all
the state's communities. As we work toward these
goals, new economic opportunities will open and
our dependence on out-of-state energy sources
will diminish. This page links to information
about planning, programs and actions that reduce
the risk of harm from climate change and
increase the benefits of the emerging low-carbon
- Climate Smart Communities - NYS Dept. of Environmental Conservation "Local Action to Combat Climate Change . Climate Smart Communities (CSC) is an unprecedented partnership between New York State and local communities. Its goal is to lower greenhouse gases and save taxpayer dollars through climate smart actions that also promote community health and safety, affordability, economic strength and quality of life. This page tells how your city, town, village or county can join the Climate Smart Communities partnership, and also introduces the Climate Smart Communities Guide to Local Action. "
- NASA - Global Warming Global warming is an increase in the average temperature of Earth's surface. Since the late 1800's, the global average temperature has increased about 0.7 to 1.4 degrees F (0.4 to 0.8 degrees C). Many experts estimate that the average temperature will rise an additional 2.5 to 10.4 degrees F (1.4 to 5.8 degrees C) by 2100. That rate of increase would be much larger than most past rates of increase. --NASA
- Climate Change | U.S. EPA EPA's Climate Change Site offers comprehensive information on the issue of climate change in a way that is accessible and meaningful to all parts of society – communities, individuals, business, states and localities, and governments.
- New York Climate Change Advisory Group In August of 2009 Governor David A. Paterson signed Executive Order No. 24 setting a goal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in New York State by 80 percent below the levels emitted in 1990 by the year 2050. The Executive Order also created the New York Climate Action Council (CAC) with a directive to prepare a draft Climate Action Plan by September 30, 2010. The Climate Action Plan will assess how all economic sectors can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and adapt to climate change. The Plan will also identify the extent to which such actions support New York’s goals for a clean energy economy.
- The National Center for Atmospheric Research NCAR provides the university science and teaching community with the tools, facilities, and support required to perform innovative research. Through NCAR, scientists gain access to high-performance computational and observational facilities, such as supercomputers, aircraft and radar - resources researchers need to improve human understanding of atmospheric and Earth system processes. NCAR and university scientists work together on research topics in atmospheric chemistry, climate, cloud physics and storms, weather hazards to aviation, and interactions between the sun and Earth. In all of these areas, scientists are looking closely at the role of humans in both creating climate change and responding to severe weather occurrences.
- NOAA Climate Program Office "The Climate Program Office (CPO) manages competitive research programs in which NOAA funds high-priority climate science, assessments, decision support research, outreach, education, and capacity-building activities designed to advance our understanding of Earth’s climate system, and to foster the application of this knowledge in risk management and adaptation efforts. CPO-supported research is conducted in regions across the United States, at national and international scales, and globally. Learn more... "
- Climate and Land use Change "The USGS undertakes scientific research, monitoring, remote sensing, modeling, synthesis, and forecasting to address the effects of climate and land use change on the Nation’s resources. The resulting research and products are provided as the scientific foundation upon which policymakers, natural resource managers, and the public make informed decisions about the management of natural resources on which they and others depend. " - from U.S. Geological Survey
- Climate Change Adaptation Task Force | The White House "On October 14, 2010, the Climate Change Adaptation Task Force, co-chaired by the White House Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), released its interagency report outlining recommendations to President Obama for how Federal Agency policies and programs can better prepare the United States to respond to the impacts of climate change. The report recommends that the Federal Government implement actions to expand and strengthen the Nation’s capacity to better understand, prepare for, and respond to climate change. These recommended actions include: "
- Northeast Climate Science Center "Climate change is affecting every corner of the American continent. It is making droughts drier and longer, floods more dangerous and hurricanes more severe. The glaciers in Montana’s Glacier National Park are melting so quickly, they're expected to disappear in the next two decades. Rising seas are consuming the world’s first wildlife refuge – Florida’s Pelican Island – which President Teddy Roosevelt set aside in 1903. At the U.S. Department of the Interior, we manage one-fifth of the land in the country, 35,000 miles of coastline, and 1.76 billion acres of the Outer Continental Shelf. We also uphold the federal government’s trust responsibilities to 562 Indian tribes; conserve fish, wildlife and their habitats; manage water supplies for more than 30 million people; and protect the icons of our national heritage. "-from U.S. Department of the Interior
- Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet "Global Climate Change is produced by the Earth Science Communications Team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology "
- Climate Data Online (CDO) | National Climatic Data Center "NCDC is the world's largest active archive of weather data. NCDC produces numerous climate publications and responds to data requests from all over the world. NCDC operates the World Data Center for Meteorology which is co-located at NCDC in Asheville, North Carolina, and the World Data Center for Paleoclimatology which is located in Boulder, Colorado. NCDC supports a three tier national climate services support program - the partners include: NCDC, Regional Climate Centers, and State Climatologists. "
- Climate Change Just the Facts: Climate change poses an immediate and growing threat to California’s economy, environment, and to public health. California’s groundbreaking efforts are helping reduce greenhouse gases emissions, which are warming the planet. The state is also taking action to prepare for the unavoidable impacts of climate change, including the increased likelihood of both flooding and drought. Ca.gov State of California
- Tyndall Centre "We bring together scientists, economists, engineers and social scientists who are working to develop sustainable responses to climate change. We work not just within the research community, but also with business leaders, policy advisors, the media and the public in general. "
* Looks like a great place where students can learn about Climate Change. Maybe some adults too--from the EPA. Climate change info for students EPA developed A Student's Guide to Global Climate Change to help provide students (and educators!) with clear, accurate information about the causes and effects of climate change — as well as the steps we can all take to help solve the problem. --From the US Environmental Protection Agency EPA
The major environmental sites on Global Warming
- EcoAdapt "Climate change is real. It is not a problem of the future, it's a problem of now. The disruptions it is causing require that we change the way we consider planning and management in order to ensure the future of natural and built systems. In order to protect these areas from the unavoidable effects of climate change, EcoAdapt provides support, training, and assistance to make planning and management less vulnerable and more Climate Savvy. Over the past 200 years, great strides have been made in the world of management and now all of that is at risk because of climate change. EcoAdapt is working to ensure the success of these past efforts by delivering a framework for climate adaptation. We help governments, organizations, and individuals figure out how to do what they do effectively, even in the face of climate change. Mission Statement EcoAdapt, founded by a team of some of the earliest adaptation thinkers and practitioners in the field, has one goal - creating a robust future in the face of climate change. We bring together diverse players in the conservation, policy, science, and development communities to reshape planning and management in response to rapid climate change. "
- Cornell Climate Change a portal to the research, teaching, outreach & extension programs of Cornell University "The Cornell Climate Change Website provides a portal to the climate change research, teaching, and outreach and extension programs ofCornell University. According to the IPCC, “Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice and rising global average sea level.” Just like the global climate, New York’s climate is already changing. Since 1970, the annual average temperature in New York has increased nearly 2° F, while New York’s winter temperatures are almost 5° F warmer. "
- 350.org is an international campaign that's building a movement to unite the world around solutions to the climate crisis—the solutions that science and justice demand. Our mission is to inspire the world to rise to the challenge of the climate crisis—to create a new sense of urgency and of possibility for our planet.
- Dr. James E. Hansen Climatologist and heads the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies
- Climate Communication | Science & Outreach "Climate Communication is a non-profit science and outreach project funded by the Rockefeller Brothers Fund and the ClimateWorks Foundation. Climate Communication operates as a project of the Aspen Global Change Institute, a non-profit organization dedicated to furthering the scientific understanding of Earth systems and global environmental change. "
- Global change, including Climate Change, at the Museum of Earth Paleontological Research Institution, 1259 Trumansburg Road, Ithaca, NY 14850 is a good place for teachers, students, and parents to learn about the science of Climate Change in our region. Global Change Project "Global change is the most pressing environmental issue of the 21st century. Global change includes climate change, biodiversity loss, ozone depletion, and other environmental changes with global impact. Global change, while relevant to every scientific field and human endeavor, is most centrally studied through Earth system science. Through PRI's Global Change Project, we can help make sense of present and potential future change, while contrasting it with geological understanding of past global change. We provide outreach through exhibits, curriculum, presentations, professional development, website resources, and much more. "
- Learn about Climate Change from Al Gore and Google Earth on special Google Earth lecture that gives you an idea of how Climate Change is going to affect planet Earth Explore climate change in Google Earth "Explore the potential impacts of climate change on our planet Earth and learn about solutions for adaptation and mitigation, in the context of the United Nation's Climate Conference (COP15) in Copenhagen. With Google Earth you can view climate change scenarios, interact with narrated tours, investigate deforestation, and even dive into the depths of the oceans. " Google Earth
- Pew Center on Global Climate Change: The Pew Center on Global Climate Change The Pew Center on Global Climate Change brings together business leaders, policy makers, scientists, and other experts to bring a new approach to a complex and often controversial issue. Our approach is based on sound science, straight talk, and a belief that we can work together to protect the climate while sustaining economic growth.
- Stop Global Warming: Join the Virtual March Here are some things you can do: Stop Global Warming: Learn More The Stop Global Warming Virtual March on Washington is a non-political effort to bring all Americans together in one place, proving there is a vast consensus that global warming is here now and it is time for our country to start addressing it. With the support of leading scientists, political and religious leaders, prominent Americans and concerned citizens, the Virtual March on Washington will move across the United States via the Internet from one town to the next, showing the evidence of global warming's alarming affects, and highlighting real people's concerns and real solutions along the way.
Global Warming | Union of Concerned Scientists
Global warming is one of the most serious
challenges facing us today. To protect the
health and economic well-being of current and
future generations, we must reduce our emissions
of heat-trapping gases by using the technology,
know-how, and practical solutions already at our
- Global Warming Effects - Global Warming Climate Hot Map "Explore the signs of global warming on this map or Google Earth. The evidence of climate change includes heat waves, sea-level rise, flooding, melting glaciers, earlier spring arrival, coral reef bleaching, and the spread of disease. The greatest concentration of global warming indicators on the map is in North America and Europe because that is where most scientific investigation has been done to date. As scientists focus increasingly on fingerprints of global warming in other regions—from Russia to Antarctica and Oceania to South America—the evidence they find will be added to the map. Scientists project that unless emissions of heat-trapping gases are brought under control, the impacts of climate change are likely to increase. " Climate Change | Union of Concerned Scientists
AlGore.com Former Vice President Al
Gore is cofounder and Chairman of Generation
Investment Management, a firm that is focused on
a new approach to Sustainable Investing. Gore is
also cofounder and Chairman of Current TV, an
independently owned cable and satellite
television network for young people based on
viewer-created content and citizen journalism. A
member of the Board of Directors of Apple
Computer, Inc. and a Senior Advisor to Google,
Inc. Gore is also Visiting Professor at Middle
Tennessee State University in Murfreesboro,
- Climate Reality “What is The Climate Reality Project? Climate change is not your fault for the car you drive, the lights you turn on, or the food you eat. The climate crisis is our problem. Real solutions, systemic solutions, innovative solutions, can only come when we address it together. That’s what The Climate Reality Project will do. Without doubt. Without delay. And with your help. The Climate Reality Project is bringing the facts about the climate crisis into the mainstream and engaging the public in conversation about how to solve it. We help citizens around the world reject the lies and take meaningful steps to bring about change. Founded and chaired by Al Gore, Nobel Laureate and former Vice President of the United States, The Climate Reality Project has more than 5 million members and supporters worldwide. It is guided by one simple truth: The climate crisis is real and we know how to solve it.”
- Health Effects - Conclusions - Global Warming - Sierra Club The world's leading authority on global warming, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), has concluded that unchecked global warming will cause a significant increase in human mortality due to extreme weather and infectious disease. No country, even industrialized nations like the United States, will escape these impacts. --from Sierra Club Home Page: Explore, Enjoy and Protect the Planet
- National Resources Defense Council's Global Warming Page: Global warming may be the most devastating environmental problem human beings have created, and the toughest to solve. For starters, our society is largely powered by the fossil fuels that cause global warming. What's more, fossil fuel companies have vast reserves of money to pay for lobbyists, advertising and their own studies to counter scientific evidence. And many people think of global warming as an abstract problem, not a pressing threat.
- Green House Network: Helping To Stop Global Warming Our National Volunteer Speakers Network includes over 80 citizens in more than 30 states available to speak at no charge about global warming pollution, climate change policy and the path to a clean energy future. Over the last two years, our speakers have given over 300 talks on college campuses, at businesses, community centers, congregations and retirement communities, reaching more than 10,000 people. Members of the National Volunteer Speakers Network range from engineers to songwriters, from college professors to business people. They are united by a belief that global warming pollution presents a very real and present danger to the health of the planet's human populations and natural ecosystems, and that the United States needs to take immediate steps to reduce emissions of greenhouse gasses.
- The Climate Project The Climate Project (TCP) began in June 2006 as a commitment by former US Vice President Al Gore to train 1,000 Americans to become Presenters and to give the slideshow from his Academy Award-winning film An Inconvenient Truth. The class of "First Fifty" Presenters were trained in Nashville, Tennessee, which is the home of its international headquarters. TCP now has more than 3,000 Presenters who have reached an audience of more than 5 million people worldwide and its reach continues to grow.
- GCP : Global Carbon Project : The Global Carbon Project (GCP) was established in 2001 in recognition of the enormous scientific challenge and fundamentally critical nature of the carbon cycle for Earth sustainability. The scientific goal of the project is to develop a complete picture of the global carbon cycle, including both its biophysical and human dimensions together with the interactions and feedbacks between them.
- Global Warming - National Wildlife Federation "Our country is home to a diverse array of wildlife ranging from the highest peaks, to the driest deserts, to freshwater and marine environments and to all the places in between. The abundant and diverse wildlife resources, which are so important to our culture and well-being, face a bleak future if we do not address global warming. " - National Wildlife Federation
- Global warning "As the economic crisis deepens, climate change approaches critical levels and global tensions increase, the need to break the monopoly on television daily news has never been greater. We must know why the crisis is happening and what we can do to defend ourselves. Corporate TV news won't ask the real questions, let alone provide answers. The scale of the problems facing us demands original and profound solutions. If 'necessity is the mother of invention', get ready for an era of unprecedented imagination and innovation. But there will be no progress without a fight against forces wedded to the status quo. We are entering a period of action, where people take solutions into their own hands and create a bold vision for new ways of living and doing business. The Real News Network is such a solution; it's the missing link in the global media landscape. " The Real News Network
- NESL's Climate & Global Dynamics (CGD) "CGD pursues research as part of the Earth and Sun Systems Laboratory (ESSL) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). CGD research provides understanding of the Earth's climate system and uses models to develop the capability of predicting the evolution of the climate system to the degree possible. Research within CGD is highly collaborative, with specialties focused in six major research sections and one for information systems which administers CGD's computing needs. "
- Climate Change : Pictures, Videos, Breaking News --from Breaking News and Opinion on The Huffington Post
- EcoAdapt -::- Meeting the Challenges of Climate Change "Climate change is real. The disruptions it is causing require that we change the way we consider conservation and resource management in order to create a functional future for biodiversity and human communities. EcoAdapt was founded to offer support, training, and assistance to make conservation and management less vulnerable by providing support for climate change adaptation. "
- Climate Change Archinves an archive of Climate Change article from Environment : NPR
- Climate Progress "About Climate Progress Edited by Joe Romm, we cover climate science, solutions and politics. Columnist Tom Friedman calls us "the indispensable blog" and Time magazine named us one of the 25 "Best Blogs of 2010." "
- Changing the Climate Forecast | from IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature "The International Union for Conservation of Nature is the world’s oldest and largest global environmental organization "
- Global Warming "Global warming is the single biggest threat to wildlife. " - from World Wildlife Federation "All across America, wild spaces are being squeezed out, leaving wildlife with fewer places to call home. The National Wildlife Federation works to inspire Americans to protect wildlife for our children's future. We protect and defend wildlife and the wild places they need to survive. We work to restore the health of our natural habitats and ecosystems. And we educate and inspire Americans to care for and protect our natural heritage. "
- Climate Place "The purpose of this site is to give people the tools and information they need to make the case for urgent and dramatic action to address climate change. "
- Climate Change Crash Course « The Cost of Energy "The Climate Change Crash Course (“4C”) is an experiment in creating a crowd-sourced, one-stop guide to climate change resources, geared to three levels of familiarity with the subject: Newbies, Nerds, and Ninjas. Each of those sections has three subsections: Must Reads, Extended Reading, and Web Sites Worth Tracking. As a bonus, there’s also a section on my favorite online research tools. "
- Ceres is an advocate for sustainability leadership. Ceres mobilizes a powerful network of investors, companies and public interest groups to accelerate and expand the adoption of sustainable business practices and solutions to build a healthy global economy. OUR MISSION Mobilizing investor and business leadership to build a thriving, sustainable global economy.
- Acterra To bring people together to create local solutions for a healthy planet. About Us Acterra is an environmental non-profit serving the Silicon Valley. We provide people with tangible, hands-on activities they can do to improve the environment. All of our work is solution-oriented. We offer several thousand volunteer opportunities each year for adults and youth. Because people get excited by different things, we offer a broad range of programs, from habitat restoration to carbon reduction and more. As importantly, we teach people how to become effective environmental change agents in their communities, neighborhoods, workplaces and schools. In addition to empowering thousands of people here in Silicon Valley, our programs serve as models that others can emulate elsewhere.
- Global Green USA is the American affiliate of Green Cross International, founded by President Gorbachev, to foster a global value shift toward a sustainable and secure future. For nearly 20 years, Global Green USA has been a national leader in advocating for smart solutions to global warming including green building for affordable housing, schools, cities and communities that save money, improve health and create green jobs. Global Green USA has influenced more than $20 billion dollars for green building projects and educates millions of people about climate friendly solutions through its annual Red Carpet/Green Cars Oscars campaign. Global Green is also leading efforts to help rebuild a green New Orleans through its sustainable green village and green schools initiatives..
- Insurance in a Climate of Change Project History This project was begun by Evan Mills in the very early 1990s, leading to a paper in 1994 on the non-energy benefits of energy efficient technologies—including risk management—and an initial article [PDF] dedicated to the insurance dimensions in 1996. We worked through the late 1990s and up to 2001 on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's chapter [PDF] on insurance industry vulnerabilities to climate change, followed in 2005 by our article in the journal SCIENCE[PDF]. Other activities focused on availability and affordability, the "greening" of insurance, emerging liability risks, regulatory issues, and risk modeling, and related topics. Sponsors The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was the first sponsor of our insurance-related work at LBNL, joining the project in 1997. Further support soon followed from the U.S. Department of Energy.Ceres provided critical support from the NGO world beginning in 2005 after federal interest in the topic waned.
- Climate Change Resource Center "The Climate Change Resource Center (CCRC) is a reference Web site for resource managers and decisionmakers who need information and tools to address climate change in planning and project implementation. Changing climates have already catalyzed changes in environments throughout the United States, and future effects are expected to be greater. Although future scenarios are daunting, managers can do much to promote adaptation to climate change and encourage reduction of human effects on climate. The CCRC addresses the manager's question "What can I do about climate change?" by providing information about basic climate sciences and compiling knowledge resources and support for adaptation and mitigation strategies. The site offers educational information, including basic science modules that explain climate and climate impacts, decision-support models, maps, simulations, case studies, and toolkits. The site is a joint project of the Forest Service Research Stations and the Environmental Threat Assessment Centers (WWETAC/EFETAC). "
- Nature Climate Change "Welcome to the Nature Climate Change website. Here you can find general information about the journal, and more detailed information for readers, authors, referees, librarians, advertisers and journalists. This site is specific to Nature Climate Change, which is published by Nature Publishing Group (NPG). Understanding the Earth's changing climate, and its consequences, is a scientific challenge of enormous importance to society. Nature Climate Change is a monthly journal dedicated to publishing the most significant and cutting-edge research on the science of climate change, its impacts and wider implications for the economy, society and policy Nature Climate Change publishes original research across the physical and social sciences and strives to synthesize interdisciplinary research. The journal follows the standards for high-quality science set by all Nature-branded journals and is committed to publishing top-tier original research in all areas relating to climate change through a fair and rigorous review process, access to a broad readership, high standards of copy editing and production, rapid publication and independence from academic societies and others with vested interests. "
The climatechange.cornell.edu website provides a comprehensive, interdisciplinary gateway to climate change events, initiatives, research, student courses and organizations, and public engagement at Cornell University. Climate change is one of the biggest challenges faced by our generation, and Cornell researchers are involved with many aspects of addressing this challenge regionally and globally. In addition to climate scientists who document climate change trends and develop models to project the future, others at Cornell are working on ways to build resilience to climate change in our communities, farms, and natural landscapes. Cornell engineers are working on energy solutions to slow the pace of climate change, while those in the social sciences and humanities provide perspective on the economic issues and human impacts that inform policy decisions."
Places where you can discuss your concerns on Global Warming
- Real Climate | Climate science from climate scientists "RealClimate is a commentary site on climate science by working climate scientists for the interested public and journalists. We aim to provide a quick response to developing stories and provide the context sometimes missing in mainstream commentary. The discussion here is restricted to scientific topics and will not get involved in any political or economic implications of the science. All posts are signed by the author(s), except ‘group’ posts which are collective efforts from the whole team. This is a moderated forum. "
- Post Carbon Cities "The Post Carbon Cities program helps local governments understand the challenges posed by energy and climate uncertainty, and provides resources for elected officials, planners, managers and others to develop plans and responses appropriate to their communities. Post Carbon Cities is a program of Post Carbon Institute. Post Carbon Institute conducts research, develops resources and organizes leaders to aid the smooth transition of local economies to a world no longer dependent on hydrocarbon fuels nor emitting climate-changing levels of carbon: the post-carbon world."
- Environment Forum | Analysis & Opinion | Reuters
- Natural Resources and the Environment - Dot Earth Blog - NYTimes.com "By 2050 or so, the world population is expected to reach nine billion, essentially adding two Chinas to the number of people alive today. Those billions will be seeking food, water and other resources on a planet where, scientists say, humans are already shaping climate and the web of life. In Dot Earth, reporter Andrew C. Revkin examines efforts to balance human affairs with the planet’s limits. Supported in part by a John Simon Guggenheim Fellowship, Mr. Revkin tracks relevant news from suburbia to Siberia, and conducts an interactive exploration of trends and ideas with readers and experts."
- BBC NEWS | Special Reports | Green Room The Green Room -from BBC News.
- Dateline Earth Dateline Earth Seattle Post-Intelligencer reporters Lisa Stiffler and Robert McClure dish up enviro tidbits from around the region and across the globe -- stuff you might have missed, cool environmental happenings locally and speedy updates for ongoing issues.
- Climate 411 - Blogs & Podcasts - Environmental Defense Fund Blogging the science and policy of global warming --from Environmental Defense - Finding the Ways That Work
- Climatecrossroads "ClimateCrossroads.org fuses social-networking opportunities with fresh environmental journalism and authoritative global warming expertise -- giving it the ability to connect users with a wealth of multimedia information, expert opinions, and each other. ClimateCrossroads.org, created by the Sierra Club, is the go-to site for people eager --after eight years of inaction on global warming -- to share ideas, information, opinions and opportunities to make real and urgent progress on climate change. "
- Climate Change Crash Course « The Cost of Energy "The Climate Change Crash Course (“4C”) is an experiment in creating a crowd-sourced, one-stop guide to climate change resources, geared to three levels of familiarity with the subject: Newbies, Nerds, and Ninjas. Each of those sections has three subsections: Must Reads, Extended Reading, and Web Sites Worth Tracking. As a bonus, there’s also a section on my favorite online research tools. "
Lots of reading here, but this is the list of the major Climate Change reports that include material on how our Rochester, NY region will be affected by Climate Change and what various departments and countries plan to do about it. (Don't forget, if you find yourself craving for more studies on Climate Change, each study listed below has a multitude of studies at the end of their reports. Just saying....)
The one point about Climate Change that all would agree There is but one point on the very contentious but still over-ignored issue of Climate Change that most would agree on and that is this: Relatively few of the world’s population have actually read a Climate Change study. For all the wailing and gnashing of teeth, all the distain, denial, and dismissal on this issue, few have actually sat down in a chair, put their feet up, opened a Climate Change study, and carefully read its contents. Overwhelmingly, most have heard or read about Climate Change from second or third-hand sources. Perhaps most think Climate Change studies the esoteric minutia that would only interest the arcane fascination of climate scientists, or environmental professionals. But think. Shouldn’t we give our life support system the courtesy (free of political and other propaganda) a few moments of our time to read at least one of the objective research papers on what the majority of climate scientists believe is occurring to our planet? After all, it took four billion of years for life on this planet to produce a brainy species like ours to evolve and thousands of years more to develop a reliable process for us speak for the planet, a process called the scientific method. What we haven’t been able to accomplish and what we must do in a very short about of time is to listen. That process, painstakingly robust, is talking to us in the form of peer-reviewed, scientific (yet, very readable) climate studies and they are saying “Please, pay attention to this.” You can find many Climate Change studies here and they are free:
- The Impact of Climate Change and Population Growth on the National Flood Insurance Program AECOM conducted the Climate Change Study for FEMA to analyze potential long-term implications of climate change on the NFIP. The climate change impact assessment includes all 50 states, as well as consideration of the U.S. territories. However, since the concern is impact on the NFIP as a whole, it is recognized that not all regions have the same relative significance. A detailed region-by-region assessment of climate change was not intended. Major attention, therefore, was given to areas of greatest population and the largest inventory of at-risk properties. FEMA intends to use the findings of this study to assist in the development of recommendations addressing the impacts of climate change and future development on Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs). Download and read the study, "The Impact of Climate Change and Population Growth on the National Flood Insurance Program" (Prepared for Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) by AECOM, June 2013)
- The Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) "The Working Group I contribution on the physical science basis of climate change has been finalized. Click here for the Summary for Policymakers (SPM) and unedited accepted final draft of the Full Report. This page covers the contents of the AR5, the process of developing the AR5 and the wide participation of experts in the AR5 writing and review process. "
- Climate Change in the U.S. Northeast A Report of the Northeast Climate Impacts Assessment, October 2006 Union of Concerned Scientists
- The State of Climate Change Adaptation in the Great Lakes Region The field of climate change adaptation is in a period of critical transition. The general concepts of adaptation have been well developed over the past decade. Now, practitioners must move from...[show full description] Document Citation: Gregg, R. M., K. M. Feifel, J. M. Kershner, and J. L. Hitt. 2012. The State of Climate Change Adaptation in the Great Lakes Region. EcoAdapt, Bainbridge Island, WA. --from EcoAdapt
- Federal Advisory Committee Draft Climate Assessment Report Released for Public Review"A 60-person Federal Advisory Committee (The "National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee" or NCADAC) has overseen the development of this draft climate report. The NCADAC, whose members are available here (and in the report), was established under the Department of Commerce in December 2010 and is supported through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). It is a federal advisory committee established as per the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972. The Committee serves to oversee the activities of the National Climate Assessment. Its members are diverse in background, expertise, geography and sector of employment. A formal record of the committee can be found at the NOAA NCADAC website. " | This is a draft report: "Between January 14th and April 12th only: Please go to the Review and Comment System to provide comments on the draft. "
- USGS-NOAA: Climate Change Impacts to U.S. Coasts Threaten Public Health, Safety and Economy Released: 1/28/2013 1:00:00 PM "According to a new technical report, the effects of climate change will continue to threaten the health and vitality of U.S. coastal communities' social, economic and natural systems. The report, Coastal Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerabilities: a technical input to the 2013 National Climate Assessment, authored by leading scientists and experts, emphasizes the need for increased coordination and planning to ensure U.S. coastal communities are resilient against the effects of climate change. The recently released report examines and describes climate change impacts on coastal ecosystems and human economies and communities, as well as the kinds of scientific data, planning tools and resources that coastal communities and resource managers need to help them adapt to these changes. " USGS
- Wildlife in a Warming World Confronting the Climate Crisis | (National Wildlife Federation 2013)
- Climate Impacts on the Winter Tourism Economy in the United States (December 2012) from Protect our Winters and Natural Resources Defense Council
- Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2012 This European Environment Agency (EEA) report presents information on past and projected climate change and related impacts in Europe, based on a range of indicators. The report also assesses the vulnerability of society, human health and ecosystems in Europe and identifies those regions in Europe most at risk from climate change. Furthermore, the report discusses the principle sources of uncertainty for the indicators and notes how monitoring and scenario development can improve our understanding of climate change, its impacts and related vulnerabilities. November 2012) European Environment Agency
- National Climate Assessment: Midwest Technical Input Report At the request of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, GLISA and the National Laboratory for Agriculture and the Environment formed a Midwest regional team to provide technical input to the National Climate Assessment (NCA). In March 2012, the team submitted their report to the NCA Development and Advisory Committee. The following white papers comprised the chapters of the report, focusing on the potential impacts, vulnerabilities, and adaptation options to climate variability and change across many sectors. Great Lakes Integrated Science Assessments- GLISA [more on Great Lakes in our area]
- Climate Change: Northeast Impacts & Adaptation "The Northeast includes dense cities and sparsely populated towns. The region extends from the coast to inland plateaus and mountains. Its climate varies as much as its geography. Portions of West Virginia, the region's southern-most state, typically experience more than 20 days per year of 90°F temperatures. In contrast, northern areas of Maine typically experience only one day per year above 90°F Over the last several decades, the Northeast has experienced noticeable changes in its climate. Since 1970, the average annual temperature rose by 2°F and the average winter temperature increased by 4°F. Heavy precipitation events increased in magnitude and frequency. For the region as a whole, the majority of winter precipitation now falls as rain, not snow. Climate scientists project that these trends will continue. " Environmental Protection Agency
- Ruined Summer: How Climate Change Scorched the Nation in 2012 Is climate change ruining our summers? It is certainly altering them in dramatic ways and rarely for the better. The summer of 2012 has been full of extreme weather events connected to climate change. Heat records have been broken across the country, drought conditions forced the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to make the largest disaster declaration in U.S. history, and wildfires have raged throughout the West. New research by world-renowned climate scientist James Hansen confirmed that the increasingly common extreme weather events across the country, like record heat waves and drought, are linked to climate change. This report examines those climate change impacts whose harm is acutely felt in the summer. Heat waves; warming rivers, lakes, and streams; floods; drought; wildfires; and insect and pest infestations are problems we are dealing with this summer and what we are likely to face in future summers. (August 30, 2012) National Wildlife Federation
- SYRACUSE SUSTAINABILITY PLAN | A COMPONENT OF THE SYRACUSE COMPREHENSIVE PLAN - City Hall, 233 E. Washington Street, Syracuse, NY 13202, 2012, City of Syracuse
- The National Global Change Research Plan: 2012-2021 The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) Online Resource Library was created to fulfill the requirement for a Global Change Resource Information Office as mandated by the Global Change Research Act (GCRA) of 1990. The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) (2012) Also read the April 2012 Press Release Administration Releases 10-Year Global Change Strategic Plan
- Confronting Climate Change in the Great Lakes Region Impacts on Our Communities and Ecosystems The Union of Concerned Scientists and The Ecological Society of America (2003)
- North America. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, | IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) *
- Critical Issues in Climate Change Research Ben Laabs Department of Geological Sciences SUNY Geneseo
- CLIMATE RISK DISCLOSURE BY INSURERS: Evaluating Insurer Responses to the NAIC Climate Disclosure Survey | A Ceres Report, September 2011
- Extreme Events and Insurance 2011 annus horribilis from The Geneva Association – Risk and Insurance Economics and Research (2011) *
- Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) *
- Report 11-18 Response to Climate Change in New York State (ClimAID) funded by New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (2011)
- NFWP Climate Adaptation Strategy “The Public Review Draft of the National Fish, Wildlife and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy is now available for public review and comment.” (2012)
- Pleistocene Climate, Phylogeny, and Climate Envelope Models: An Integrative Approach to Better Understand Species' Response to Climate Change from PLoS ONE : accelerating the publication of peer-reviewed science (2011) *
- Chapter 6 - Ontario | Earth Sciences From Impacts to Adaptation: Canada in a Changing Climate | Natural Resources Canada 2007
- The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity | U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.3 May 2008 USDA Office of the Chief Economist United States Department of Agriculture
- Indicators of Climate Change in the Northeast 2005 | from Clean Air-Cool Planet (2005)
- Stop trashing the climate from Stop Trashing the Climate (2005)
- The State of the Birds 2011 Report on Public Lands and Waters United States of America The 2011 State of the Birds report is a collaborative effort as part of the U.S. North American Bird Conservation Initiative, involving federal and state wildlife agencies, and scientific and conservation organizations. These include the American Bird Conservancy, the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, the Bureau of Land Management, the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, the Department of Defense, the National Audubon Society, The Nature Conservancy, the National Park Service, the U.S.D.A. Forest Service, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. Geological Survey.
- 2010 Report: Climate Change — Report on Climate Change (State of the Birds) 2010
- New York State Climate Action Council Climate Action Plan Interim Report | from New York Climate Change Advisory Group (2010)
- PREPARING FOR THE CHANGING CLIMATE A Northeast-Focused Needs Assessment | from Clean Air-Cool Planet (2011)
- Confronting Climate Change in the U.S. Northeast from Northeast Climate Impacts Assessment (2007)
- Climate Change Indicators in the United States, 2012 From 2ND EDITION Climate Change Indicators in the United States EPA
- Odd-ball Winter Weather: Global Warming’s Wake-Up Call for the Northern United States National Wildlife Federation (2010)
- Birds and Climate Change Ecological Disruption in Motion A Briefing for Policymakers and Concerned Citizens on Audubon’s Analyses of North American Bird Movements in the Face of Global Warming from Birds | National Audubon Society Birds (2009)
- Great Lakes National Parks in Peril The Threats of Climate Disruption from Rocky Mountain Climate Organization (2011)
- Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) IPCC (2011)
- Rising to the Urgent Challenge Strategic Plan for Responding to Accelerating Climate Change | U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
- Climate Change and Your Health Rising Temperatures, Worsening Ozone Pollution | Union of Concerned Scientists 2011
- Our Changing Planet The U.S. Global Change Research Program for Fiscal Year 2011
- Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States | The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) 2009
- New York Climate Change Advisory Group :: Interim Report NYS Climate Action Council 2010
- Climate Change 101: Understanding and Responding to Global Climate Change published by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change. January 2011
- State of the Climate in 2010 | NOAA 2010
- The effects of climate change on agriculture, land resources, water resources, and biodiversity in the United States Final Report, Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.3 | A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research 2008 U.S. Climate Change Science Program.
- BAMS State of the Climate - 2012 The State of the Climate in 2012 is a supplement to the August 2013 issue of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS Vol. 94, No. 8). Blunden, J., and D. S. Arndt, Eds., 2013: State of the Climate in 2012. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 94 (8), S1-S238.
- Turn Down Heat the November 2012 A Report for the World Bank by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and Climate Analytics --from The World Bank
- Advancing the Science of Climate Change (2010) "America’s Climate Choices: Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu "
- Impacts of climate change on biodiversity, ecosystems, and ecosystem services: technical input to the 2013 National Climate Assessment 2012, Staudinger, Michelle D.; Grimm, Nancy B.; Staudt, Amanda ; Carter, Shawn L.; Stuart, F. Stuart, III; Kareiva, Peter ; Ruckelshaus, Mary ; Stein, Bruce A. Federal Government Series - US Geological Survey
- Ready or Not: An Evaluation of State Climate and Water Preparedness Planning "Across the United States, climate change is affecting water resources in many ways, including putting water supplies at risk, increasing flooding and erosion, and threatening fish and aquatic species. As global warming pollution continues to affect our environment, these risks to water resources will only increase, posing grave challenges to our nation's cities, towns, and neighborhoods. Some states are leading the way in preparing for water-related impacts with integrated and comprehensive preparedness plans that address all relevant water sectors and state agencies. Unfortunately, other states are lagging when it comes to consideration of potential climate change impacts -- or have yet to formally address climate change preparedness at all. " (2012, National Resources Defense Council)
- Changing Climate, Changing Forests: The Impacts of Climate Change on Forests of the Northeastern United States and Eastern Canada, U.S. Forest Service, July 2012
- EPA Region 2 Climate Adaptation Plan Region 2 Climate Change Workgroup USEPA Region 2 New York, NY 9/18/2013
- Heatwaves: Hotter, Longer, More Often Our latest report finds hot weather in Adelaide, Melbourne and Canberra has already reached levels predicted for 2030. The report examines the impact of climate change on heatwaves and hot weather in Australia and around the world. “This is the critical decade if we want to prevent heatwaves getting even worse” — Prof. Tim Flannery. (2014) Climate Council